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How to Turn an Old Computer into Web server

What could be the best use of your old computer? Before it is rendered completely dysfunctional, you can turn it into a file server, game server, arcade console or  anything for your use. But, what about a turning your old computer into a web server to run your own blog from home, or host big files on your website for download. What you would require is an old computer, network cables and download some free software. Well, you must have upgraded to new machines, stacking up the old machines that are of no good. You can also build a firewall and connect to FreeDNS. FreeDNS offers a solution to the ever-changing dynamic IP. Let's see how you can build a web server from old computer.

Step 1

Does your system have 64MB of RAM, an intel or AMD processor, a cd-rom drive and not less then  600MB of space? If yes, go on you have the keys.

Step 2

For the operating system you can use Ubuntu Server Edition 8.04. Similar results can also be achieved from the desktop edition. However, the GUI can take up a lot of memory and processing power. Download the CD image of Ubuntu Server edition form the link and select a mirror to burn it.

Step 3

You need to ensure that your computer is hooked up to a router and has live Internet connection during this install. It will automatically detect and configure yournetwork settings. All that you need to do is boot from CD in BIOS.

Step 4

Now that Ubuntu Server doesn't have a GUI (graphical user interface), everything is text-based. In order to gain full control over what goes on in your server, install Webmin (a web-based GUI). After you log in with your username and password input the following command

sudo apt-get install perl libnet-ssleay-perl openssl

Step 5

Now its time for port forwarding.  In order to access your website from anywhere, let Internet open up your router's homepage by typing in the router's IP address(default is log in with user the username and password.

Step 6

Get a free domain name for your server. Already your server IP address is your website, you won't like to keep remembering it. To create a good free domain site you can look here, they use their Internet IP as a domain name. Make a new account and follow the on-screen instructions. It is really easy to set up.

Step 7

Enter the domain name into your browser and see if it works. If it doesn't work use the server's IP address. In case it doesn't work you must have done something wrong with port forwarding.

Step 8

Go your server once again and execute these commands: sudo chown yourusername:www-data /var/www sudo chmod 775 /var/www you have just changed the folder /var/www and permissions /var/www is the root folder of your website.

This is the best way to configure an old computer to turn it into a webserver.

Add a firewall/router

You might think, does it make a sense to have a firewall at home. However you need to know there are countless advantages of having a firewall. You can run Squid Proxy and have a catching proxy at your house which could increase your web speed significantly. Moreover you can create different profiles with passwords to use the web. This will help you to keep away your children's from sites for adults.  Firewalls such as PFsense, m0n0wall or Smoothwall are free and they perform various functions. When you run aweb server inside your home network, you can use the firewall to route (or NAT) the connection from the outside world to your server and vice-versa. We have some of the best are available here firewalls listed here.
Pfsense             Installing PFSense
M0n0wall        M0n0wall – PC Platform Quick Start Guide
Smoothwall     Smoothwall Gateway Installation


26 Tips on How to be Safe in your Ebay Selling and Buying

The irony of eBay is that as it grows to be ever more successful, it draws the unsavoury element of the internet towards it. I’m talking about people who make it their business to attempt to defraud you and I in our eBay and PayPal transactions.

Of course, not all dodgy dealings on eBay are fraudulent. Some are just mischievous. Others are by chancers, who perhaps reckon their victims won’t be bothered to pursue them.

Whoever causes it, it’s left to the targeted buyer or seller to try and sort out the problem. All that we as users can do is to be extremely vigilant and cautious in all our eBay and PayPal activities.

Here is a list of practical steps, in no particular order, which buyers and sellers can take to help avoid becoming the next victim.

Hopefully you are already aware of some of these. It doesn’t necessarily follow that if one of these applies the auction or person is fraudulent. But if you use your head, and build up a view of the overall transaction based based upon a number of these factors, you will reduce your chances of getting conned.

1) Stock photos and descriptions

Because they don’t have the item they are “selling”, some fraudsters use a stock photograph of the item. And they will probably use the manufacturer’s product description too. So, stock photos and no original description might be a sign. Search for other auctions by the same seller, and see if they are brazen enough to advertise the same item more than once.

2) A price too good to be true often isn’t true

A fraudster wants your money quickly, so you may find they offer to close their auction early with you as the “winner” having bid a price which you know to be somewhat of a bargain. Why would anyone close their auction early if the price hadn’t reached market levels? I’ll give you one guess.

3) High value or high volume, newly registered sellers

Although the vast majority of new sellers are genuine and honest, be cautious of buying from people selling high value items in bulk, very early on in their eBay career. This pattern isn’t quite normal. Think back to your own first sales. You would have been tentative, and probably have tried single, low value items initially. So, a new seller fitting this profile may be someone who has perhaps been previously suspended and has registered another ID.

4) 1 day listings

Although 1 day listing are used by genuine sellers who have more than one item or who want a quick sale, unfortunately this duration is attractive to fraudsters too. They sometimes use a 1 day auction duration to gain a quick sale before their actions can be reported and acted upon. So, be extra wary on auctions with 1 day listing.

5) Invitations to trade off-eBay

This is a classic ploy of fraudsters. Having made some kind of contact with you, or you with them, they will invite you to purchase or to sell off eBay i.e. without using eBay’s auction services. The attraction here to the fraudster is that they can drive the transaction along the lines they prefer, whether that be escrow, PayPal etc. Another reason why trading off eBay is not a good idea is that you have to keep your own formal records of the transaction, and you forfeit any cover from eBay buyer protection and PayPal buyer protection. Plus, and this might be a minor point, but you will not be able to leave feedback to let others know your experience with this seller/buyer.

6) Payment methods with no recourse

Fraudsters prefer to chose payment methods in which the buyer has no protection, like wire transfers where the buyer has no way of tracing where the money is going. Western Union Money Transfers and BidPay are favourites and should be totally avoided. Postal orders are similar although they are a popular payment method among the genuine sellers as they require no clearance time. Bank transfers and cheques can only provide the possibility of your bank investigating the details of the account the money was transferred into. For the best protection use Paypal and fund with a Credit Card. Note there are limits on eBay and PayPal protection, and you should make yourself aware of what these are.

7) Unusual sales pattern

If your seller’s feedback indicates that they normally deal in collectables, DVDs or other specific items, be suspicious that they are suddenly listing laptops, plasma TVs or other high value items. The change may indicate that this seller’s account has been hijacked.

8) Bad english gives you a pointer

Some fraudsters operate from abroad but pretend to be in UK or USA. As they aren’t particularly adept at the english language they might use a translation tool like Babelfish to create their emails to you. So, watch out for emails that are not good english. In itself, it doesn’t prove anything, there are plenty of genuine eBay sellers for whom english is not their first language. But it might add to further evidence you have.

9) Location Location Location

In the case of lazy fraudsters you might find their locations don’t match up. By that I mean the auction says the goods are in the UK, but the seller’s ID details show their location to be, say, Ukraine. This is not a good sign. Often in these cases if you contact these sellers you will receive an excuse as to why the item is not in the UK, and therefore can’t be collected in person. In short, if an auction says the item is in the UK and the seller says that it is not, I would avoid the auction. And don’t forget to cross check with their PayPal account, and see in which country this resides.

10) Ask questions

Always, always ask your seller a question. Any question. Their response, if you receive one, will help you judge how genuine the seller is. Beware auctions that carry a message asking you to contact the seller via a given email address as opposed to via the ‘Ask seller a question’ link. This could be an account hijacker trying to prevent buyers from ‘Asking the seller a question’. They want to stop this from happening because such questions could be routed to the real account owner.

11) “eBay can vouch for me” email

A warning about a relatively new tactic used by fraudsters. If you are proving hard to land as a buyer/seller, they may claim they can get eBay to email you proof of their validity so that you can trust them. eBay, of course, will NEVER do this. The email sent out, however authentic looking, is fake and is designed to get you to part with your money or your goods. This applies equally to Square Trade and PayPal. They will never email you certifying the genuineness of anyone.

12)A PayPal warning

There are fraudsters who use stolen PayPal accounts to accept payments. To lower the possibility of this, check your seller’s location as shown in eBay, and then see if it is one of PayPal’s permitted countries by clicking here: http://www.workwinners.com/nlr701.htm. If PayPal don’t offer their service in the country that the seller resides, be very wary.

13) Passwords

Never have the same password on your eBay and PayPal accounts. Or indeed on any other financial or personal site. Change your passwords every 30-60 days on both eBay and PayPal.

14) Escrow

If your seller asks you to use escrow, and proposes an escrow company they’ve used before, this is a clear indication they are fraudulent. There are many fake escrow sites which will take your money fraudulently. The only escrow site recommended by eBay is http://www.escrow.com. An alternative in the UK is http://www.auctionpix.co.uk Please don’t be tempted to use any other escrow company, however professional looking their websites might be. It is a fact that 99% of escrow companies on the internet are fraudulent. They are set up solely to defraud money out of unsuspecting buyers, and to get goods without paying for them from unsuspecting sellers.

15) Pointers in feedback

Try to read the positive feedback as well as the negative. Read the way your seller responds to negative feedback as this will often give you an idea of how the seller will react if something goes badly wrong. If the seller is offering high value goods, be wary if their feedback has been built up quickly from low value purchases. Also, if the overall rating is good, but there are a disproportionate number of negatives in recent days/weeks, this might indicate the account has been taken over. Finally, be aware that feedback is not the guarantee it once was. Feedback can easily be manufactured. Also, if the user ID has been hijacked, you’ll be reading the feedback of the original account owner, not the person with whom you’re currently dealing!

16) Credit Card payment

For high value items, or for amounts of money you can’t afford to lose, make sure you pay by credit card which has online fraud protection. This will give you some recourse if the seller is fraudulent. In this context, paying via PayPal is not the same. PayPal do have a buyer protection scheme, but there are criteria which the eBay auction has to satisfy in order to qualify. Even if the transaction qualifies, PayPal’s standard protection currently has a maximum value of $1,000. Note that payment by debit card provides zero protection.

17) Address and Telephone check

Use the Ask the seller a question link, and request they email you with their address and telephone number. Any reputable seller will give you their address and telephone number. When you get the number, call it, and see if you get through to the genuine seller.

18) Keystroke capturing virus

This is a computer virus which you inadvertently download onto your PC. It’s task is to capture the keystrokes you make, and to send them to the virus placer. The fraudster then uses pattern recognition software to identify and extract personal information, like username, password, credit card numbers etc. To avoid this happening to you, it is wise to have good, up-to-date virus, firewall and spyware checking software on your PC. Here is where you can get free software for each of these functions:

19) Shill bidding

Shill bidding is where people work in cahoots to inflate the bidding on an item. A seller has a “partner” who makes bids on the seller’s items with a view to bumping up the bid price. They have no intention of buying the item. Fortunately, shill bidders and their associated seller can be stupid. The shill bidder will usually makes bids on other items from the same seller. Here’s how to check to see if shill bidding is a feature of a particular seller. First, look at the seller’s closed auctions over the last 30 days. If most of the closed auctions have no bids, it is unlikely the seller has shill bidders working with them. If all of the closed auctions have bids, take a look at the bid history. See if the same bidder appears in the list of bidders, usually with aggressive bidding and normally at the start of the auction. If so, you may have uncovered a shill operation, so avoid that seller’s auctions.

20) Keep your transaction information

Keep your own record of the transaction when you’re buying. Don’t just rely on eBay. You want a record of the seller’s identification, the item description, emails sent and received, plus the time, date and price of your bid.

21) “I noticed your bid….”

Never deal with anyone who contacts you after seeing your bid on another auction. They will say something like, “I saw you bidding on that digital camera. I have the same model available for sale. I don’t have time to list it on eBay. It has more accessories than the one you lost out on. You can have it for xyz.” If you bite, they’ll probably take you down the fake escrow route. Also, if you entertain this proposition, you’re operating outside of eBay and therefore have no auction protection whatsoever.

22) Changed eBay ID

Never deal with anyone who has a changed ID icon next to their name. This icon menas they’ve changed their ID in the last 30 days. Few legitimate people change their eBay ID. When was the last time you changed yours? There’s a 1% chance that an ID change is genuine, but 99% that it is fraudulent. Why take the risk?

23) Changed email address mid-stream

If a seller or buyer changes their email address on you in the middle of a transaction, stop dealing with them. It is likely their previous email account was closed down due to some irregularity – such as a previous victim reported them. If you think about it, why would any genuine buyer or seller change their email address whilst corresponding on a transaction they wish to conclude expeditiously?

24) Complications

Never get involved in any transaction where the seller/buyer tries to introduce a third person into the financial arrangements. They might ask you to pay xyz, who will then pay the seller, and you will receive a discount or commission for your co-operation. Such proposals are always fraudulent. They prey on greed. Don’t be tempted.

25) Time is of the essence

This is a scam which is has more potential for success than traditional phishing attacks, as it is time sensitive. The fraudster searches for high value auctions that have just ended. The bid history for an auction contains hyperlinks to each bidder. The fraudster checks to see if the winning bidder is selling any items of their own. If so, they go to that auction and embed a request for payment from the first auction within a question for seller. This works because winning bidders are expecting request for payment shortly after an auction ends. A variation of this is to offer a bidder a “second chance”. This time the “Ask the seller a question” email pretends that the real winner has backed out, and offers the item at a lower price. The buyer, believing the story, is lured into paying to whom they believe is a genuine seller. Many eBayers have heard of the second chance system, but have no experience of it. This unfamiliarity coupled with the fact that a few weeks might have passed, makes this an effective method for fraudsters. The moral of this story is never get involved in any transaction which arrives in your inbox via the Ask the Seller a Question feature.

26) eBay IDs

Never us your email address as your eBay ID, or part of your eBay ID. Fraudsters have software which monitors internet traffic looking for information such as this. If your eBay ID and email address are the same, it is simple for a fraudster to plausibly communicate with other eBay members in your name.

That’s all in my list. If you have any further ideas on how to prevent fraudulent transactions on eBay, please let me know and I will promote these through future newsletters.

In the meantime, be aware, and be safe in your eBay buying and eBay selling.


The Power User’s Guide to the Windows 7 Taskbar

The Power User's Guide to the Windows 7 Taskbar

It seems like every week we learn about a new tip to enhance the Windows 7 taskbar, and it's hard to keep them all straight. Here's the complete power user's guide to tweaking and using your taskbar like a pro.

Learn to Use the Taskbar Like a Pro

The Power User's Guide to the Windows 7 Taskbar

Before you even get started trying to tweak your taskbar, you should make sure that you understand how to use all of the features, and there might be more than you think—check out our complete guide to Windows 7 shortcuts to learn useful basic maneuvers, like how you can hold down the Ctrl key while left-clicking to cycle through a group of taskbar buttons, or hold down Shift while right-clicking to show the regular window menu. Here's the full list of Taskbar-specific shortcuts:

  • Win+number (1-9): Starts the application pinned to the taskbar in that position, or switches to that program.
  • Shift+Win+number (1-9): Starts a new instance of the application pinned to the taskbar in that position.
  • Ctrl+Win+number (1-9): Cycles through open windows for the application pinned to the taskbar in that position.
  • Alt+Win+number (1-9): Opens the Jump List for the application pinned to the taskbar.
  • Win+T: Focus and scroll through items on the taskbar.
  • Win+B: Focuses the System Tray icons.
  • Drag+Drop taskbar buttons or System Tray icons: to reorganize them.
  • Shift+Click on a taskbar button: Open a program or quickly open another instance of a program.
  • Ctrl+Shift+Click on a taskbar button: Open a program as an administrator.
  • Shift+Right-click on a taskbar button: Show the window menu for the program (like XP does).
  • Shift+Right-click on a grouped taskbar button: Show the window menu for the group.
  • Ctrl+Click on a grouped taskbar button: Cycle through the windows of the group.
  • Drag a File to a taskbar button: to pin the file to the current application's Jump List.
  • Shift+Drag a File to a taskbar button: to open a file with the current application.
  • Middle-Click on a taskbar button: to open a new instance of the application.
  • Middle-Click on a Aero Thumbnail: to close that application instance.
  • Left-Click + Drag upwards: to open the Jump List for an application.

Once you've mastered the shortcut keys and mouse tricks, or at least those you'll actually use, it's time to learn how to fully use Windows 7's Jump Lists, from tweaking the number of items shown to pinning document templates and quickly accessing private browsing modes.

Tweak Your Taskbar Settings

The Power User's Guide to the Windows 7 Taskbar

Now that you fully understand all of the tips and tricks to using the built-in features, it's time to tweak the taskbar to work just the way you want it to-for instance, if you don't want taskbar buttons pulling up the Aero Peek thumbnails every time, there's a registry hack that can change the default left-clicking behavior to switch to the last active window instead.

Rather than dealing with messy registry hacks, the 7 Taskbar Tweaker customization tool gives you fine-grained control over what happens when you left, middle, or right-click on taskbar buttons, and even customizes window grouping and whether dragging to the taskbar pins items or opens them. If the new Aero Peek doesn't work quite the way you want, you can use a registry hack to make Aero Peek display instantly, or just use the Desktop Peek Tweak tool to make the changes more easily.

The Power User's Guide to the Windows 7 Taskbar

If the look and feel is what you want to change, you can check out AeroWorks to re-skin your Windows 7 taskbar without patching anything, or use the Windows 7 Start Button Changer to change that orb to something that fits your mood a little better. You can use the Windows 7 Taskbar Thumbnail Customizer to tweak the size and spacing of the thumbnail windows that show up when you hover your mouse over a taskbar button. You can even get the old-style network activity icon back in the system tray if you really want it.

Pin Anything To Your Taskbar

The Power User's Guide to the Windows 7 Taskbar

So you've mastered the taskbar, tweaked the settings just the way you want, and it's time to pin all of your favorite applications to the taskbar, but there's just one problem: Windows doesn't let you pin just anything. No worries, however, because you can use a trick to not only pin individual folders to the taskbar, but actually pin any item. If you really want to tweak your system, you can use transparent shortcuts to separate and organize your taskbar icons, or add a fully functional recycle bin.

The Power User's Guide to the Windows 7 Taskbar

Once you've pinned an application to the taskbar, there's a simple trick to customizing it that might not be immediately obvious—just pop up the Jump List, and then right-click on the application name to get to the real properties screen, where you can add extra command-line parameters, or set the compatibility mode.

Enhance the Taskbar's Application Launching

The Power User's Guide to the Windows 7 Taskbar

The Windows 7 taskbar combines window management with an application launcher, since you can right-click on any item and pin it to the taskbar, but that's not nearly enough for a power user. We've already told you how you can boost your productivity with Jump Lists, and that starts with using some more powerful application launchers that enhance your taskbar experience-Jumplist Launcher consolidates applications into a single button, while JumpLaunch turns your Quick Launch folder into a Jump List.

If you like some minimal eye candy for your taskbar, check out the slick 7 Stacks utility, or use Standalone Stack to not only launch applications, but browse through your file system with popup navigation that can be pinned to your taskbar. Of course, you aren't limited to launching applications, since you can also close all windows from the taskbar.

Monitor Your System With Add-ons

The Power User's Guide to the Windows 7 Taskbar

There's any number of desktop widgets that can show you the weather or monitor your system, but they all have the same problem-if you've got a window maximized, you won't be able to see anything. You can get around this problem by simply docking an application to the taskbar that gives you your system monitoring right there in the taskbar button itself.

If weather is your thing, check out how Weatherbar integrates weather forecasts directly into the taskbar, or you can use SuperbarMonitor to add drive space, battery life, and memory or CPU usage into separate buttons on the taskbar. If monitoring the web is more your thing, you can integrate a taskbar RSS reader, or put Gmail notifications into a taskbar button.

Virtual desktop application Dexpot is not only a powerful virtual desktop manager, but the latest version includes full support for Windows 7's Aero Peek thumbnails-you can pin the application to the taskbar, and use the thumbnails to easily navigate between multiple virtual desktops.

Revert the Whole Thing Back to XP/Vista Style

The Power User's Guide to the Windows 7 Taskbar

If the new taskbar with all of the great functionality just isn't your thing, you can actually revert everything back to work almost the same as it did back on the Windows XP or Vista days.

One of the first things most Windows 7 adopters ask is how to get the Quick Launch back, and luckily there's an easy trick to add the Quick Launch bar back-just add a new toolbar with %appdata%\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Quick Launch as the folder location. You can also head into the taskbar settings and tweak the whole thing to look just like older versions of Windows. Of course, if you really hate the taskbar, there's always the option of using Taskbar Eliminator to ditch the taskbar entirely.